If you’re a man who struggles to get his own way at home, it may be down to the shape of your face。
Each time you pick up the phone and chat with a new person, that stranger is subconciously judging you from your first "hello." Don't get mad: you, too, are judging them. New research indicates that we begin to form first impressions based on how someone says "hello," ScienceNOW reports—specifically, on how the tone of their voice sounds.
A number of factors related to the voice reveal thepersonality of the speaker. The first is the broad area of communication, whichincludes imparting information by use of language, communicating with a groupor an individual, and specialized communication through performance. A personconveys thoughts and ideas through choice of words, by a tone of voice that ispleasant or unpleasant, gentle or harsh, by the rhythm that is inherent withinthe language itself, and by speech rhythms that are flowing and regular oruneven and hesitant, and finally, by the pitch and melody of the utterance.When speaking before a group, a person's tone may indicate unsureness orfright, confidence or calm. At interpersonal levels, the tone may reflect ideasand feelings over and above the words chosen, or may belie them. Here theconversant's tone can consciously or unconsciously reflect intuitive sympathyor antipathy, lack of concern or interest, fatigue, anxiety, enthusiasm orexcitement, all of which are usually discernible by the acute listener. Publicperformance is a manner of communication that is highly specialized with itsown techniques for obtaining effects by voice and /or gesture. The motivationderived from the text, and in the case of singing, the music, in combinationwith the performer's skills, personality, and ability to create empathy willdetermine the success of artistic, political, or pedagogic communication.
Men with narrower skulls are less likely to be regarded as dominant than those with wider ones, a study has found。
Second, the voice gives psychological clues to aperson's self-image, perception of others, and emotional health. Self-image canbe indicated by a tone of voice that is confident, pretentious, shy,aggressive, outgoing, or exuberant, to name only a few personality traits. Alsothe sound may give a clue to the facade or mask of that person, for example, ashy person hiding behind an overconfident front. How a speaker perceives thelistener's receptiveness, interest, or sympathy in any given conversation candrastically alter the tone of presentation, by encouraging or discouraging thespeaker. Emotional health is evidenced in the voice by free and melodic soundsof the happy, by constricted and harsh sound of the angry, and by dull andlethargic qualities of the depressed.
Researchers in the U.K. recruited around 60 undergraduate students—half male, half female—and recorded them reading a short passage in a non-descript voice, ScienceNOW describes. The team edited down the recordings, leaving only the part where the students picked up the phone and said "hello." They then asked over 300 other students to listen to the recordings of that single word and asked to give an impression of the unseen person speaking it, such as how trustworthy they thought that person was or how warm their personality sounded. (ScienceNOW provides links for listening to both a supposedly trustworthy and an untrustworthy person say "hello.")
牛竞技网页版，Psychologists from Stirling University asked volunteers to look at photographs of students with neutral expressions and rate the dominance of their personality。
- What does the passage mainly discuss?
The students didn't hesitate to make judgements about the speakers at the other end of the line, and on average their assessments of those individuals' personalities converged, ScienceNOW reprots. Here's more on those findings:
(A) The function of the voice in performance
They also photographed the volunteers and asked them to fill out a questionnaire about their own levels of authority。
(B) The connection between voice and personality
Men who raised the tone of their voices, and women who alternated the pitch of their voices were rated as more trustworthy. Men with lower pitched voices were generally perceived as more dominant. But the opposite was true for women: Those with higher average pitch were rated as more dominant。
(C) Communication styles
The research revealed a strong link between the breadth of a man’s face compared to its height, and how dominant he was considered by himself and others. The same could not be said of women。
(D) The production of speech
Our vocal tones, the resarchers conclude, are just one more trait on the list of things we are judged by—and use to judge—each time we encounter a new person, even if we have no control over some of those traits.
- What does the author mean by stating that,"At interpersonal levels, tone may reflect ideas and
Writing in the journal Personality and Individual Differences, the study’s lead author Viktoria Mileva said that others’ perceptionn of men with broad faces could lead them to believe they are dominant。
feelings over and above the words chosen"(lines 9-10)?
(A) Feelings are expressed with different wordsthan ideas are.
But she added: ‘It is also possible that men with a higher width to height ratio act inherently more dominant, perhaps as a result of increased testosterone.’
(B) The tone of voice can carry information beyondthe meaning of words.
(C)A high tone of voice reflects an emotionalcommunication.
'One potential mechanism which may explain why fWHR affects male self-perceptions of dominance is how others behave towards them。
(D) Feelings are more difficult to express thanideas.
- The word "Here" in line 10 refers to
‘If certain behavioural qualities which signal dominance, such as achievement drive, aggression and trustworthiness are visible in people’s faces through their fWHR, as our study one suggests, then actions towards these individuals may differ。
(A) interpersonal interactions
(B) the tone
‘However, it is also possible that men with a higher fWHR act and feel inherently more dominant, perhaps as a result of increased testosterone’。
(C) ideas and feelings
(D) words chosen
Previous studies have found that men with wider faces are more likely to be seen as aggressive, but also more attractive for short-term relationships。
- The word "derived" in line 15 isclosest in meaning to
- Why does the author mention "artistic,political, or pedagogic communication" in line 17?
(A)As examples of public performance
(B)As examples of basic styles of communication
(C) To contrast them to singing
(D) To introduce the idea of self-image
6.According to the passage , an exuberant tone ofvoice, may be an indication of a person's
(A) general physical health
(C) ability to communicate
(D) vocal quality
7.According to the passage , an overconfident frontmay hide
- The word "drastically" in line 24 isclosest in meaning to
- The word "evidenced" in line 25 isclosest in meaning to
10.According to the passage , what does aconstricted and harsh voice indicate?